Male Infertility

  • What Is Male Infertility ?
  • Male Infertility Procedure
  • Why Choose Kasturi Male Infertility ?
  • Do's And Dont's

Nearly one in seven couples are infertile because they haven't been able to conceive while having frequent, unprotected sexual activity for a year or longer. Male infertility has an effect on up to half of these couples.

Male infertility may be caused by low sperm production, impaired sperm function, or blockages that prevent sperm from reaching the uterus and by conditions, accidents, long-term health problems, lifestyle decisions, and other factors.

The problem of male infertility can be frustrating and upsetting, but there are numerous treatments available.


Male infertility is mostly characterized by the inability to conceive a child. There may be no other obvious symptoms or warning signs.

However, in certain cases, the signs and symptoms are brought on by a deeper problem, such as an inherited illness, a hormonal imbalance, dilated veins near the testicle, or a condition that inhibits sperm from flowing through. Observable symptoms and indications consist of:

  • Problems with sexual function, such as inability to ejaculate or only ejaculating a small amount of fluid, a decrease in lust, or trouble maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)
  • A bulge or enlargement in the testes
  • Recurrent respiratory ailments
  • A lack of a nose and irregular breast growth (gynecomastia)
  • Reduced face or body hair or other signs of chromosomal or hormonal disorders, as well as a lower-than-average sperm count (fewer than 15 million sperm per millilitre of semen or a total sperm less than 39 million per ejaculate)

Surgery can be used to treat some structural causes of infertility, usually as an outpatient procedure or in one day.Men may have direct sperm extraction from the testicles or ducts, sperm duct opening, tissue biopsies, varicocele treatment, vasectomy reversal, or varicocele treatment.

Surgical Options

At Washington University, males and sperm producers have a variety of surgical options at their disposal, including:

Varicocele repair

The varicocele (a tangled mass of veins that can restrict regular blood flow from the testicles) is tied off through a lower abdominal incision. About 67% of the time, sperm counts rise within six months of surgery, although the success of the procedure is highly dependent on the age of the targeted carriers and how they contributed to the family's infertility. Finally, there is no proof to support surgery for a varicocele that is not visibly present.

Microsurgery on the sperm duct

Sperm duct microsurgery is used to clear obstructions in the ductal system that carries sperm to the penis. Sperm often regain their normal motility within two years.

Microsurgical sperm retrieval
For patients who do not have any sperm in the ejaculate, have major erectile dysfunction, or have other medical conditions that prevent ejaculation, healthy sperm can be surgically removed from the sperm ducts in the testicle. Any sperm collected surgically may only be utilised through IVF-ICSI.

Vasectomy reversal
A vasectomy reversal, an outpatient procedure, is frequently used to reverse a previous vasectomy and enable the patient to release sperm into their semen once more. The age of the intended carrier must be taken into consideration, and in general, the length of time following the vasectomy is inversely correlated with the effectiveness of the reversal. The wives of patients seeking to have their vasectomy reversed as well as the patient themselves are encouraged to meet with a reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialist.

Laboratory Tests

• Urinalysis These might indicate the presence of an infection.

• Semen Examination Sperm motility, or movement, as well as sperm morphology and maturity, ejaculate volume, actual sperm count, and ejaculate fluidity are all measured during the examination.

• Hormone evaluation Tests for testosterone and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) are used to determine the precise level of sperm production as well as the general hormonal balance. Additional hormonal tests, such as those for serum LH and prolactin, may be carried out if initial testing considers them required.

Additional testing may be required after the initial evaluation if a diagnosis is not readily obvious. One or more of the following tests might be recommended:

  • Test for Seminal Fructose to check whether the fructose is being properly added to the semen by the seminal vesicles.
  • Urine tests after a jacuzzi To determine whether there is blockage or retrograde ejaculation, perform a semen leukocyte analysis. to ascertain whether white blood cells are present in the semen
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and Kruger have developed morphology to more thoroughly examine the features of sperm.

To assess the sperm's ability to fertilise, use the Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA); testing for anti-sperm antibodies to find any that may cause infertility; Ultrasound In order to check the testicles for varicoceles (varicose veins) or duct obstructions in the prostate, scrotum, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts, testicular biopsies are carried out. Vasography To determine whether sperm production is hampered or blocked, to evaluate the anatomy of the duct system and identify any obstacles. Men without the vas deferens may undergo genetic testing to rule out underlying changes in one or more Y chromosome gene regions or to test for cystic fibrosis.

Following completion of the diagnostic evaluation, the patient may get medication or endocrinologic therapy, surgical correction, or sperm processing or manipulation in an effort to become pregnant.

Causes male infertility

Several biological and environmental factors may have an effect on your fertility. The options include

  • Azoospermia: Your infertility may be due to your inability to produce sperm cells.
  • Oligospermia is the production of low- or poor-quality sperm.
  • Genetic disorders, including Klinefelter's syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, microdeletion, and others.
  • A defective sperm or one that cannot live long enough to fertilise the egg.
  • A few of ailments, including diabetes, a few autoimmune conditions, cystic fibrosis, and a few infections.
  • A few medications and nutritional supplements.
  • Variococles: This condition causes the veins in your testicles to be bigger than normal. They overheat as a result, which could affect the quality or quantity of sperm you generate.
  • Cancer treatments can involve testicular removal surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy (one or both).
  • Unhealthy habits, such as abusing alcohol, drugs, and other substances.
  • Testicular injuries.
  • Hormonal problems: Your ability to conceive may be impacted by problems with your hypothalamus or pituitary glands.

Kasturi is the best choice for thousands of couples seeking to experience the joy of motherhood. Our team of specialists, which includes doctors, ensures that we adhere to strict quality standards and make every effort to achieve your goal. We promise secrecy, excellent service, and cutting-edge solutions to all of your infertility concerns. We offer a range of treatments and remedies to deal with the numerous infertility problems that both men and women experience.

  • Identify any prerequisites that might be relevant. Prior to setting up the appointment, find out if there is anything you need to do. You must wait at least two to five days between ejaculations and the collection if a semen analysis is intended.
  • Even if they don't appear to be related to the visit's purpose, list any symptoms you are experiencing.
  • Include pertinent information about yourself, such as any pressing issues or recent life changes.
  • Find out if infertility problems have a history in your family. It may be possible to determine the cause of the issue if any male members of your blood family, such as your brother or father, have reproductive issues or other diseases.
  • Find out from your parents if you experienced any health issues throughout your early years or at birth, such as undescended testicles.

      •   Compile a list of every prescription medication, vitamin, and nutritional supplement you take. This includes any previous use of anabolic steroids, alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, or other recreational drugs.
      •   Bring a friend with you. Your partner might need tests as well to rule out any reproductive abnormalities that might be preventing pregnancy. Having your companion there is also a good idea since they may help you recall any                  instructions your doctor gives you or ask questions you might not think to.


  • Smoke or use tobacco: Research on the effects of smoking on sperm quality has revealed that smoking has a detrimental effect on sperm counts, motility (the ability of the sperm to swim), and shape.
  • Abusing alcohol: Abusing alcohol can lower fertility. If you're trying to get pregnant, it might be a good idea to cut back or perhaps quit drinking.
  • Soak in hot tubs or take long, hot baths. Research suggests that high temperatures can impair sperm. Male reproductive organs are found outside of the body because they need to be kept at temperatures below 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. NCCRM's male infertility specialists advise "keeping things cold" by avoiding hot spas and car seat heaters, avoiding using laptops on your lap, and clothing in permeable bottoms to reduce rising body temperature in the pants.
  • Skip dental checkups: Regular dental exams will maintain the health of your teeth and gums and, according to some study, may also aid to maintain fertility. Untreated dental problems in men have been associated to semen-borne pathogens, which in turn have been linked to male infertility.

Dr. M. Kalpana (DNB, OBGYN, Obstetrician & Gynaecologist Fertility Specialist Fetal Medicine Specialist)

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