Osteoporosis is a condition affecting bones of the body. It causes the bones to become brittle and weak. With weak bones the risk of bone fracture enhances. The loss of calcium from the bone makes it weak. This loss occurs in a progressive and silent way. Older people especially women are in the danger of getting this disease condition. Other causes of osteoporosis are:
- Genetic disorder.
- Heavy use of medications affecting bone-strength.
- Excessive drinking and smoking.
- Any hormone producing gland disease.
Some of the common symptoms of osteoporosis are given below:
- Thin and weak bones
- Loss of height
- Severe back pain
The conservative treatment methods for osteoporosis include the intake of basic CDE’s calcium(C), vitamin D(D), useful exercises(E). Also steps to prevent any falls which may break the bone should be taken. Other options include bone-friendly medications, change in lifestyle, strontium treatment, and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators(SERMs).
The surgical option to treat osteoporosis basically involves two categories:
Kyphoplasty is a surgical method to treat compression bone fractures in the spine. It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Mostly, fractures caused due to osteoporosis are treated. Another name for kyphoplasty is balloon kyphoplasty. This technique gives relief from pain, stabilizes bone, and restores lost body posture. Other than osteoporosis, the conditions using kyphoplasty surgery are:
- Cancer, including multiple myeloma.
- Spinal injuring causing broken bones.
Prior to surgery, the patient is kept under local or general anesthesia. The doctor then cleans the area to be treated. Afterwards, medicine is applied to numb the affected region. During surgery, a small incision is created on the back of the body. Through the incision, a needle is inserted at the end of which a balloon is placed. Fluoroscopy is used to guide the needle into the proper area. After reaching the correct position, the balloon is inflated. As balloon inflates, the fracture is elevated to normal positions. This helps to restore the lost height and posture of the body. The balloon is then removed through the incision. Specially-designed instruments are then used under low pressure to fill the space with cement-like material called polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA). PMMA is used because it quickly hardens and hence provide bone stabilization. ?
Post-surgery, the person may return to home on the same day of surgery. Driving should be avoided unless permitted by the doctor. One day complete rest is advised. The patient may return to normal day-to-day activities within 2 days. If pain is felt in the site of needle injection, use ice-packs. Ice-packs help to lower the pain. Pain-killers and medications as prescibed by the doctor are also helpful. Avoid aggressive exercises and weight lifting. It may worsen the condition.
Kyphoplasty is usually a less-invasive and safe procedure. However, it includes some of the complications as stated below:
- Bone cement leakage.
- Allergic reaction to medications.
- Heart or breathing problems.