The shoulder is the most mobile joint of the body. The damage or injury to labrum and ligaments of shoulder causes dislocation. Such shoulder damages are known as bankart lesion. These dislocations often recur after sometime. Bankart surgery is a method of treatment where the torn tissues are re-attached. They are successful to permanently treat repeated dislocations.
Certain tests such as x-rays, MRI scan, etc are done to determine the severity of shoulder dislocations. Based on the tests, the needful treatment is confirmed. Bankart repair can be done by both open surgery and arthroscopic surgery. However, arthroscopic bankart surgery is usually opted. In the beginning of surgery, general anesthesia is given to the patient. A number of tiny incisions are made on the shoulder. These incisions help to insert arthroscope and surgical instruments into the affected area. Initially, the labrum and ligaments of the shoulder are mobilized and repositioned. This is done to encourage healing process. On the edge bone of the socket, small anchors or harpoons are inserted. Stitches on these anchors are then used to attach the labrum and ligaments back to their original position. Sutures are then used to close the tiny incisions. Waterproof dressings are then applied on the wound.
After the operation, the patient is required to stay in hospital for one night. Stitches are removed after 2-3 weeks. A special shoulder-immobilizing sling is used in the shoulder to hold it in proper position. Physiotherapy and exercises are encouraged to regain the shoulder functionality. These therapies continue for 4-6 months. Activities such as golf, swimming, walking, etc are encouraged to improve mobility and flexibility. The shoulder recovers completely in 6-8 months.
The common risks included are:
- Shoulder joint stiffness
- Damage to blood vessels and ligaments
- Persistent shoulder instability