Bad obstetric history (BOH) reflects previous unfavorable fetal delivery in terms of 2 or more spontaneous consecutive abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, stillbirths, early neonatal deaths, intrauterine growth retardation & congenital anomalies. Medical help is required in order to identify the causal factor and also the strategy to identify and alleviate the problem


Infections: Primary infections which are caused by TORCHToxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), & Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the major cause of BOH.

These maternal infections were initially unapparent or asymptomatic thus it is very difficult to diagnose in clinical grounds. So, diagnosis of acute TORCH infection in the pregnant women is generally recognized by demonstration of seroconversion in paired sera or demonstration specific IgM antibodies.

It can be concluded that previous history of the pregnancy wastage & the serological reactions for the infectious, genetic, immunologic & thrombotic etiologies during pregnancy will be considered while managing the BOH